In the frame structure lightweight walls are constituted by frames of elmenti in timber, with uprights and crosspieces, which may have a size diverse. These frames are closed on both sides with panels of various type (plasterboard, gypsum fiber board, chipboard, concrete wood, wood fiber, of fibers oriented panels, plywood). The space between the elements of the frame is filled with insulation (rock wool, mineral wool or glass wool, in recent times also more and more often natural materials such as cellulose, wool, coconut fiber, hemp, cotton). The structure of the floors is composed of wooden joists of different section, with paneling on both sides and isolation in large density (mineral wool). On the structure of the floor you can also realize the floating floor for better sound insulation properties (concrete screed).
Timber skelet structure
The supporting structure is composed of beams and pillars, placed at determined distances. This allows a freer configuration of the facades and walls of partition. The walls do not have any support function with regard to the transfer of the vertical loads, which results in a greater freedom in the design of the spaces. Above or between the major carriers are placed the secondary load-bearing elements, such as the floors. The forces are transmitted solely through the beams to the pillars, which are normally independent of the solid elements, which delimit the spaces. The elements of the supporting structure are generally left exposed to highlight the wood-frame structure. The walls can be made of prefabricated elements made of wood or glass (even a combination of materials). There are frequent cases of combination of wood framed structure with glass curtain walls.
Solid timber construction
The structures in solid timber are divided into two categories: those with walls made of solid wood beams, circular section (the typical "Log house") and those with walls of solid wood panels nailed or glued (Xlam). The walls are usually insulated, and on the one hand, and closed with a panel, but it is possible also an embodiment without finishes, with visible structure. The exterior walls can be protected from the external finish of wood or plaster or covered with a brick façade. The structure of the floor is generally composed of solid wood panels (Xlam) or wooden beams and panels connected on both sides.